"The more basic a problem is stated, the more difficult is becomes to solve. Complex problems allow mistakes and superficialities to be more easily hidden."

Wolfgang Weingart

Experiment 01

Punch Card

The initial problem was to manually produce, with a black marker, different designs for the letters that make up the word “pandemonium”, within the limits of a punch card, consisting of 96 rectangles.

For each letter, 20 cards were created in a total of 220 cards, which include variations in thickness, size, serif, sans serif, uppercase and lowercase.

Some designers mistakenly assume that breaking the grid will make the project look astounding; nonetheless, a creative solution might lead to the task of finding something surprising within the narrow limits of a problem.

"A problem well put is half-solved."

John Dewey


Processo de criação em design gráfico: Pandemonium, is the book by Leopoldo Leal as a result of his Ph.D. dissertation at the FAUUSP.


  • Design Prof. Leopoldo Leal
  • Advisor Prof. Vicente Gil
  • Developer Arthur Ervas
  • Motion design Eleanor Greenleaf
  • Photography Cris Inoue